Revision History (last updated July 30th)

Table of Contents
Organization - Rewritten July 30th, 2006
Ground Vehicle Tactics - New Section
Air Vehicle Tactics - New Section
Shack Tactical Training Grounds - New Training Section

Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for OFP Shackbattles

Required reading for all ShackTac participants

State of the TTP as of July 17th, 2006

This section was originally started in February of 2006 in response to what was at the time the biggest OFP session we'd ever had. It featured increased teamwork and coordination, and while it didn't go off without problems, it was a good learning experience for both the ShackTac and Goon groups. The session inspired me to create a page dedicated to the tactics, techniques, and procedures we would use in future coordinated sessions such as it, and would hopefully lay the groundwork for us to move on to ever more challenging and coordinated scenarios.

Months later with the Wargames League mod and the rapid growth of Shack Tactical we've begun to see knowledge and familiarity with the TTP page come more into play in our average sessions. The players most familiar with it tend to be the most beneficial to the group, the best leaders, and are also aware of a wealth of tactical, communication, and leadership knowledge presented within. All in all the TTP grows ever more relevant and critical the more our group evolves, and it's of the utmost importance that all new players familiarize themselves with it at the first available opportunity.

Wargames League has also inspired me to put more time and effort into expanding the TTP to try to cover as much as possible. It's a perpetual work-in-progress, and I try dilligently to keep track of all of the changes made to it so that people will have an idea of what has changed since their last visit.

If you ever want to see a particular topic covered in this, please feel free to let me know.

Keep in mind that this is required reading for everyone who plays with Shack Tactical. Check it every few weeks to see what has changed. The tactics and weaponry sections in particular are relevant to every player.


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Player roles and what they mean

Rewritten on July 30th, 2006 to reflect the realities of how our organization and structure has turned out in WGL.

Due to the nature of OFP's multiplayer gameplay (and more specifically, Wargames League) and the inherent realism of the experience, it's important that we have a well-thought-out command structure in place to allow for us to carry out missions to the best of our collective abilities.

To that end, we've established and evolved a command structure and system that works very nicely for our purposes. The command structure is broken down as follows.

Optimal Platoon Breakdown| Role / Quantity
Platoon Commander
Squad Leaders
Fireteam Leaders
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Communication & Command

How to coordinate effectively in the midst of chaos

Our OFP channel is broken down into several sub-channels for the purposes of making the in-game voice communication as clutter-free as possible given the tools we have to work with. The updated ShackTac keybinds (updated December 13th) are essential for anyone who plans to play.

If you intend to take a leadership role, you MUST have a microphone. No exceptions.

The Updated ShackTac keybinds

Main Channel - ST/ Armed Assault / Primary Alt + Numpad 0
Secondary Channel - ST/ Armed Assault / Secondary Alt + Numpad .
Squad One Alt + Numpad 1
Squad Two Alt + Numpad 2
Squad Three Alt + Numpad 3
Squad Four Alt + Numpad 4
Command Element Alt + Numpad 5
Air Element Alt + Numpad 7
Armor Element Alt + Numpad 8
Harkov's Ubersquad Alt + Numpad 9
Whisper to Channel Commander
in Channel Family
Toggle Channel Commander Right ALT + Right CTRL + Insert
Volume Up 10% Alt + =
Volume Down 10% Alt + -

Keep in mind that the ALT listed is the LEFT ALT, right ALT will not work.

Whisper to Channel Commander in Channel Family - Or "The Commander Channel"

When it comes to coordinating, ShackTac uses a TS2 feature known as "whispering" to keep the different leadership elements in contact with each other. If you plan to assume a leadership role, you need to go into the Self menu and select "Channel Commander". Once you've become a Channel Commander, the green dot by your name will turn red to signify the change. Channel Commanders can use their "Whisper to Channel Commander in Channel Family" bind to talk to all Channel Commanders at once, regardless of what sub-channel they're in.

Utilizing OFP's Built-in Command Options - Simple things to make life easier for everyone

Everyone should be familiar with OFP's radio and interface options from having played the singleplayer content. "Radio options" for the purpose of this section are the options that you get when selecting squad members - there are 10 different sections, listed as follows: Move, Target, Engage, Mount, Status, Action, Combat Mode, Formation, Team, and Reply. "Interface options" are the context-sensitive cursor actions that can be used by group leaders, such as designating targets (select soldier, right click on an enemy), assigning waypoints (select soldier, click on visible position you want them to move to), and assigning sectors of fire or observation (select soldier, alt-click in direction of observation).

Both the radio and interface options should be used whenever an appropriate situation can be found for them. I'll list the different roles, and ways that the built-in command options can be utilized by them.

Text Chat - Using the different channels to maximum effect

OFP has five different text chat channels. Channels can be switch via , and . when not typing, or the up and down arrows if the chat box is already open. The channels are Global, Side, Group, Vehicle, and Direct (names changed to Command & Team in WGL). When text is sent, it'll appear only to the channel selected - Global is white in color and goes to all, Side is light blue and goes to everyone on a given side (West, East, Resistance), Group is green and shows up for everyone in your current group, and Vehicle is yellow and shows up only for people in the vehicle you're in. Direct chat shows up in the center-bottom of the screen without a speaker's name attached to it, and is generally useless for our purposes. However, there are some situations where this can be useful. Experiment with it and you may find a use for it.

If you're a Squad Leader, Assistant Squad Leader, or Air Officer, you should have your chat channel set to Side during missions. If you're a grunt, you should set it to either Group or Vehicle, depending on whether you're a vehicle crewman or not. Infantry should be on Group, while armor crewmen should be on Vehicle. If everyone is using the proper text chat channels, noone will have to question the relevance of any given text on-screen - if it shows up as a green, they know it's someone in their group. Yellow, it's a crewmember, blue, it's a command figure. Simple and effective.

Death & Comms - Dead men tell no tales

Once killed, you are no longer able to speak to any living players. If you want to chat, you're going to have to go back to the main channel to speak with any other ghosts you might find there. Ghost text chat should be kept to an absolute minimum, as it interferes with the living players' coordination. If you must chat, you need to go to the root voice channel (alt-numpad0) and speak there.

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Map Symbols & Etiquette

Avoid a map fustercluck

We use the map entirely for planning and coordination purposes. "Scribbling" on the map or trying to add humorous little markers is not tolerated, so don't waste your time doing it.

Below are some guidelines for making the most of the map. Heed these and things will go more smoothly for everyone.

Sample map markup. Click it for an example of what an in-game scene might be marked up as.

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Leadership Procedures & Tips

Guidelines for all leaders-to-be

I'd suggest that anyone who intends to take a leadership role have a notepad and pen handy during our sessions. At the start of each mission, jot down the composition of the team - the groups in each squad, the SL's/ASL's for each squad, the AirO, and so on. This way you aren't forced to memorize everyone's name, you can just glance over at your notes whenever necessary.

Pre-mission SOP

When at the slot select screen, take your role as group leader of whatever unit you want to lead. Pre-planned missions typically have the command element and squad compositions planned out in advance, so this should be a pretty quick thing.

Once at the Briefing screen, the Command Brief will occur. This is when the command staff goes into the main channel (Alt+Numpad0) to reiterate what the mission plan is and clear up any last-minute command questions amongst themselves. Ensure that, as a SL, ASL, or AirO, your grunts know that you're heading out of the channel for the Command Brief, and that'll you be back as soon as it's done.

After the Command Brief has concluded, head back to your element's channel. I would suggest that everyone start off with a group "Roll call", this is a good way to combine a mic check, ready-check, and voice familiarization routine into one thing. Go to your "Group" section of the in-game briefing book and read off the names from 2nd group member to last. "So and so". "Here." "So and so". "Here", etc etc.

Once you've done the roll call, if you have the option to reassign weapons for your group, ask if anyone wants a custom assignment. Do this the same way as the roll call - say a name, listen to what they want, assign it, and move on to the next guy. You should probably write down your different group members, their number, and any special weapons if applicable - ie sniper rifles, AT-weapons, AA, whatever - during or after this step.

After that, move on to your group briefing. You don't need to tell your group every tiny little detail of the operation, just ensure that they know the main points - what objectives you'll be responsible for, how you'll be getting around the battlefield, what they should expect to encounter, what the Rules of Engagement (ROE) are. Be concise, but not to the point of leaving out anything important. Give them a chance to ask questions as well. Ensure that you assign crew-served weapon teams.

Once everyone's ready, proceed into the mission and prepare to take names and kick ass (not necessarily in that order).

What is Pre-Planning?

Pre-planning is usually done to ensure that at the very least the Squad Leaders have a good idea of what is expected of them over the course of the missions. This helps to lower the amount of cross-squad communication needed, as the basic mission plan is known by the command element and thus brevity can be maintained in cross-squad comms.

For instance, instead of the PltCo having to tell 1st Squad to "Head to the woods NE of such-and-such town", then telling 2nd Squad to "Secure such-and-such town", then telling 3rd Squad to do something else entirely, with the pre-planning the PltCo might only have to tell the Squad Leaders to make their way to their initial waypoints and all the SL's will know where that is and what they should do once at it.

Leadership - Self-Preservation

Leaders are of far more value to the platoon alive than they are dead. Simple but true. As Squad Leaders in particular, it's important that you not get yourself killed in the first moments of combat. To this end, here are a few basic guidelines to keep in mind when leading.

First, you should avoid using anti-tank weaponry whenever feasible. Leave the AT work to the soldiers under your command - it's a very high-risk job, and in the interest of preserving the leaders' lives, it's better to task it down to subordinates.

Second, you should always try to lead from the front, but you should also let your soldiers do the bulk of the fighting whenever possible. You should be concerned with the squad-level tactical picture, not trying to kill every single enemy soldier you see.

Other leadership considerations

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Individual soldier skills

Individual soldier proficiency is a key factor to whether or not we're able to accomplish any given OFP mission. To that end, it's important that all players take the time to learn the weapons that they'd like to employ in ShackTac sessions. If you want to be an anti-tank guy, you need to know how to target and lead the various different AT weapons... same for any other special role, like snipers or medics. If you aren't proficient with something, don't take it - leave it for someone who will be more effective with it.

The easiest way to gain proficiency in OFP is to simply play through the various singleplayer missions and campaigns in the game. Just playing through Cold War Crisis and Resistance will give you a solid basic skillset that will be able to keep you alive longer than otherwise when things start to heat up in MP.

There are a few things in OFP that aren't immediately obvious tactics-wise to most people, so I'll take some time here to write up a few of the lesser-known or less-utilized techniques that will serve you well in the heat of virtual combat.

Walk Mode - Slow is smooth, smooth is fast

Everyone should have their "Walk" key bound to something readily accessible - I personally use C. "Walk" mode is a toggle-function, not a hold-down like Sprinting. When activated, you'll move at a slower rate, and will keep your weapon in a ready position even when not looking down the ironsights. This mode is extremely useful for urban operations, CQB, or anything where you need to move smoothly and slowly through an area while retaining the ability to rapidly bring your weapon to bear on a threat.

Try it once and I guarantee you'll wonder how you ever played OFP without it.

Sight Displacement - And how it affects your choice of shooting positions

Although it's not immediately obvious in OFP, the view you get in ironsight mode is offset down and to the right of the non-IS view. This is because your character moves his head down to the weapon when it comes time to look through the sights, causing a slight displacement that can be used effectively to your advantage as long as you're aware of it. Once you know about this, you can "tuck in" much tighter to cover and concealment. Since we cannot switch to left-handed shooting in OFP (maybe in the sequel?), this is most useful when firing around the right side of cover.

This section has been rewritten to better illustrate how the sight offset looks from first and third person. In the following illustrations, the left frame shows the view you get in non-ironsight mode. Note that the cursor is placed on the right edge of the cover being used. The second frame (from left-to-right) shows what happens when you go into ironsight view. Note that the view wasn't moved between frame one and two - that's what the sight offset looks like. Frames three and four simply show what it looks like from third person. Note how even small pieces of cover like thin trees and streetlights can end up protecting you from a good deal of fire if you 'tuck in' to them properly and utilize your knowledge of the sight offset.

Sight Basics - Proper sight picture, offset aiming, etc

It is important that every soldier master the basic rifleman skills, and to that end, be sure that you understand how to compensate for bullet drop at long range, and that you know what a proper sight picture is. When it comes to sight pictures, you want your front sight tip to cut the target in half, and you always, always, always want to aim center-mass. Center-mass 'holds' will allow you to reliably hit standing targets out to 300-400 meters. The smaller the target, the more likely that you'll have to apply offset aim techniques to get your rounds to hit. This is simply aiming over your target if you're shooting low - how much depends on how far away the target is. Leading a moving target is something that's going to take time and practice to get the hang of, but all effort invested in it will pay off in spades the first time you hit a distant, running target with your first shot.

Proper sight picture

Keeping Good Interval - The key to avoiding massacres

The natural tendancy of players is to group together, as if proximity equals security. In OFP, this is far from true - I can't count the number of times we've had two or three people killed in Shackbattles by a single enemy grenade, artillery round, or tank shell. This can be prevented with minimal effort - it's called keeping your interval, and all it requires is that people avoid bunching up, particularly when combat is ongoing or imminent.

The most sure-fire way to get a group of people killed by a single tank shell is for soldiers to bunch up around an anti-tank gunner. Typically, if a tank is hit by an AT weapon but not destroyed, it will very quickly return accurate fire on whoever shot the AT projectile at them - if other people are near the AT guy when this happens, the whole group will get blown to hell and back. So.. stay away from AT gunners when they're engaging armor!

Crew-served Weapon Teams - So you've volunteered to be part of a crew-served team. What now?

Crew-served weapons in OFP (FDF, WGL) are typically heavy machineguns, anti-tank missiles, or mortars (in ascending order of difficulty to employ). Two soldiers are assigned to them, one of them takes the gun or tube, and the second one takes the bipod. Ammo is split between the crew.

Most players can quickly pick up the basics on how to use the HMG's and AT crew-served weapons, but there are very few players in our group who know how to utilize mortars. If you'd like to become a mortarman, by all means, feel free to do so - the group would benefit from having more than a handful of people in it who know how to get results with the mortars - this is even more true for the Wargames League mortars, which take serious practice to become proficient with.

If you are part of a crew-served team, there are a few things you should keep in mind. First is that you're responsible for employing one of the most powerful infantry-carried weapons in the game - act accordingly. The weapon takes precedence over your normal individual soldier responsibilities. As part of a crew-served team, you'll be responsible for finding suitable deployment positions (or following the guidance of your Squad or Group Leader on where to deploy), getting the weapon set up in a speedy fashion, and putting effective fires on-target. Teams should also be prepared to rapidly move their weapon to a new position as the battle progresses.

Anti-tank missile team deployed for action

Stamina Conservation - Rush less, kill more

There is a tendency for players to sprint all over the place, regardless of the tactical situation. Inevitably this ends up getting people killed, since they tend to run into enemies after an extended sprint and thus cannot aim effectively due to the stamina penalties. Everyone should work on reserving their stamina for situations where it is desperately needed, such as an ambush, sniper fire, or any other time when getting the hell out of dodge takes priority over everything else. Jogging can be done indefinitely without penalty to the player, whereas sprinting starts off at a rapid rate, quickly builds up your breathing to the point where your aim is quite shaky, and gradually slows your sprinting speed over time. So, when given the choice, jog or walk whenever possible. Not only will you live longer, but it'll make it that much easier for us to maintain decent interval and coverage of each other while moving towards enemy contact.

Look independent of movement - One of those simple things that can prove useful

This is an easy one - in-game, your character can look around at any time independent of where you're heading. The easiest way to accomplish this is by holding down ALT and moving the mouse - you'll continue moving in the direction you were heading, and now your mouselook will control where you're looking instead of where you're heading. Alternatively you can use the numpad keys to look at set angles - 7 will look to your front-left, 4 to your left, and 1 to your rear-left, for instance.

Movement, Stances, and Fighting Near Vehicles - Further illustration of the OFP movement model

We start off with a look at the main stances and how you should tuck into cover when using them. The pictured example is the corner of a building, but these techniques can be used on any kind of cover or concealment. Note that the "sight offset" mentioned above comes into play when orienting yourself - you ideally want to be able to see around the cover in sighted mode, but have your vision partially obstructed by it in unsighted mode.

Next up we have the excellent leaning animations included in the Wargames League mod. This is even better than simply standing or crouching, as it exposes slightly less of your body to enemy fire. The main drawback is that your ironsight view ends up being tilted, and this can be a bit disorienting at first.

Here we see the way the player carries himself differently in each of the movement modes. Sprinting is muzzle-down, while jogging roughly points the weapon forward and walking has the weapon at a "ready" carry. As you read above in the "Walk Mode" section, walking should be used extensively when playing. It is by far the best mode to be in for MOUT and many other combat situations. An entire squad worth of human soldiers advancing with weapons at the ready in walk mode is a sight to behold.

Wargames League adds a bit more fidelity to the OFP movement model by introducing crouched jogging and cautious crouch walking. Both of these give you a lower profile when moving, always a good thing when bullets are flying.

The WGL "Patrol" animations, activated by "slinging" your weapon, can be seen below. While not all that practical for combat situations, they are neat to see in action.

Here are some illustrations of the kinds of positions a player can take to maximize cover when forced to fight near a vehicle.

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Ground Vehicle Tips & Tactics

How to keep from wasting millions of dollars worth of taxpayer money

This section is very rough at the moment and should be considered as work-in-progress.

What is the role of EVERY vehicle on the battlefield? - The most important thing of all

The first thing you must remember when taking a vehicle role is that you ultimately are there to support the infantry. It is not your job to run around pell-mell trying to rack up an impressive kill count; instead, you should do everything you can to work with friendly forces so that you can best support the infantry. If you cannot comprehend this simple fact, you should not be manning a vehicle in our sessions.

Hull Down - Harder to hit, harder to kill

"Hull down" is the term used to describe when a vehicle (typically a tank) uses the terrain in such a way that only the gun/turret is visible to enemy forces. This provides the enemy with a smaller target, protects the more vulnerable parts of the vehicle from enemy fire, and allows the vehicle to fire more or less unhindered. The illustration below shows an M1A2 tank in a hull-down position behind a small rise. From this location, the tank had perfect visibility of a major enemy avenue of approach and had a clear line of fire down that approach without having to expose anything more than the turret to enemy return fire.

Hull down positions can be used by any vehicles that have weapon systems atop them - even a HMMWV with a TOW can benefit from a hull-down position, though not nearly so much as a tank might.

In the best-case scenario, a tank can utilize a hull-down position when firing, and then retreat back below the cover (i.e. down the slope that provides the 'hull-down' possibility in the first place) to total protection during the reload before popping back into a hull-down position for the next shot.

Remember that a hull-down position is relative to the location and distance from the enemy. The greater the distance of the engagement, the more likely you can get into a hull down position even in a small elevation decrease.

MOUT/Urban Operations - Special considerations for ground vehicles in the MOUT environment

The only way for any vehicle to survive in a MOUT environment is via the coordinated support of friendly infantry forces.


The abundance of hard cover and good concealment in the urban environment, along with highly canalized movement routes, allows for anti-tank teams and mines/improvised explosive devices to be employed with a very high level of effectiveness. Vehicles that move into a MOUT environment without support can expect to live minutes if they're lucky.

When it comes to supporting infantry in a MOUT environment, particularly in Flashpoint, vehicles are used best by staying at a standoff distance and providing support by fire. Moving directly into the urban environment is usually an unnecessary risk and intelligent enemy forces, particularly human-controlled ones, will quickly tear apart your armor unless you have absolutely top-notch infantry supporting it.

Any areas that are suspected of harboring enemy forces should be "softened up" via high-explosive munitions before the infantry are sent in for the urban work. Tank HEAT/HE rounds and light armor 25/30mm cannons work well for this, as do the Mk-19 40mm grenades. Suspected "problem buildings" can be hammered well in advance of any friendly infantry approaching them.

When it is absolutely necessary, vehicles can be brought into the urban environment so long as 360-degree security is provided by the infantry elements. The vehicle should focus fires to the front, with the infantry covering the flanks/rear and also providing close support to the front. Infantry should stay clear of the vehicle and should never cluster behind it due to the distinct possibility of said vehicle needing to rapidly reverse out of the area in the event that a serious threat forces it to move.

Breaching walls - How to conduct a wall breach for the infantry

Breaching a wall is a good way to surprise defending enemy forces and give your infantry a fighting chance. Typical enemy defenses focus on natural "choke points" such as a central entry to a compound that is otherwise walled off. Breaching a wall in an unexpected place and attacking through the breach is an excellent way to catch the enemy off guard and destroy them before they can shift to defend the breach point.

The process for breaching with any armored vehicle is simple. First you must assess the situation and decide on where the breach should be. Be on the lookout for mines, satchel charges, IED's, or any other devices that might be in place to protect against the possibility of a breach.

Once the breach point is decided on and deemed safe enough to breach, the vehicle proceeds towards the obstacle at full-speed and smashes a hole in it. After making the hole, the vehicle should as standard procedure immediately go into full reverse and clear the way for the infantry. The infantry then proceed in from either side of the breach and assault through it while the armor provides cover. If the area the infantry will be proceeding into is barren of cover or likely observed by enemy forces, the armor vehicle should pop a smoke screen prior to backing up.

The reasoning behind having the breach vehicle withdraw after creating the breach versus charging into the unknown is simply that it increases the survivability of said vehicle. While a tank might be able to drive through the breach point, plant itself on the other side, and obliterate everything that opposes it, lighter infantry fighting vehicles will end up being disabled or outright destroyed by things like AT-4's, RPG's, and other light anti-tank weapons. It's a safer bet to simply have the infantry secure the area before bringing light armor in.

Unbuttoning - Increasing situational awareness

Unbuttoning is possible in most armored vehicles from the driver or commander position. It simply involves opening and standing in the hatch. This is very useful for keeping a high level of situational awareness and should be used whenever the situation allows for it. The main drawback is that any unbuttoned crewmembers are vulnerable to enemy fire. However, if you exercise good judgement and only unbutton when it's safe to do so, you should be fine and will definitely benefit from the increase in SA.

Note that on many armored vehicles that if the driver is turned out (as opposed to the commander), the gunner will be unable to rotate the turret. This is to prevent the turret from crushing the driver during rotation. So, whenever you're in combat, ensure that the driver knows he needs to button up and stay buttoned up.

Smokescreens - Protect vehicles, infantry, whatever

Most armored vehicles have the capability to pop a very large smokescreen on short notice. This can be very useful and should not be neglected by armor crews. If you take enemy fire from an unknown position, a hasty smokescreen and rapid relocation to a new position can save your vehicle. Popping smokescreens to support infantry movement or confuse the enemy as to infantry intentions is also a useful tactic.

Aircraft Tips & Tactics

Fixed- and rotary-wing

General Helicopters - Masking with terrain features, popping up to attack, low & fast, and so on

The key to helicopter survivability is to use the terrain to maximum advantage. Hills, valleys, forests, buildings - there are countless terrain features that can be used to mask a helicopter from enemy fire and observation. Helicopter crews should stay low and fast, moving from one covered position to another to avoid enemy anti-aircraft artillery and MANPAD or SAM units. When it comes time to engage the enemy or scout out areas, the helicopter should pop up briefly, scan the area or employ weapons against the enemy, and then drop back down behind a terrain feature so that enemy gunners have little time to acquire, lock, and fire upon them.

High-altitude and low-speed flight should be avoided by helo crews at every possible opportunity. To fly slow or high is to invite destruction. If you are not proficient enough with the helos to fly at low altitude and good speed, you shouldn't be flying them. Practice, practice, practice until you are capable of flying correctly.

Keep in mind that helicopters are highly susceptible to enemy air defense assets, and are by no means to be thought of as invincible flying machines of death and destruction. Keeping a helicopter alive in a hot environment, particularly a player-vs-player one, requires a great deal of skill, patience, and coordination between the crew members. Rambo helicopters will find themselves shot down in short order almost every single time. People who fly helicopters like they're jets will likewise find themselves being quickly shot down. Helo tactics and jet tactics are two entirely different beasts.

The Wargames League mod gives the attack helicopters a very high level of zoom with their gun cameras. Because of this, it's possible for a helicopter to hover outside the effective range of enemy small-arms and engage enemy assets with cannon fire. This also allows for thorough reconnaisance to be conducted from any helo that has such optics (to include Kiowas, which can hover behind an obstruction with only their mast-mounted dome showing and view the battlefield from it).

Helicopter attack run - Used primarily for FFAR's, but also applies to cannon fire in some situations

The following diagram illustrates the basic procedure used when conducting an attack run with Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets (FFAR's). Solid pilot/gunner coordination is required in such a manuever, as the pilot is the one "aiming" the weapon whereas the gunner ends up firing.

Keep in mind that the helo should never fly directly over enemy territory when possible. Urban environments in particular can easily conceal any manner of air defense assets, and the Wargames League helos can be brought down by a single anti-aircraft missile if it induces an engine failure.

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Lessons Learned as of June 2006

More things to keep in mind

This section will cover some of the lessons we've been learning in OFP. Some lessons are tactics-based, some are role-based, some are communications-based.

Leaders - Voice comm is required

Don't even think about being in a leadership position if you aren't capable of or willing to coordinate over Teamspeak. People without the ability to use voice comm should never be in any sort of leadership position, simple as that. This should go without saying, but there have been a few recent incidents where players without voice comm decided it would be wise to be a leader. Leaders must have voice comm capability. This was stated earlier in the TTP but it apparently needs repeating.

Voice Comm - Less chatter, more mission focus

If you aren't engaged in mission-specific conversation over voice comm, you shouldn't be talking. This is of particular importance when the server playercount is high. There are a number of empty channels available if you'd like to converse with other players while dead; do not be the one flood the critical voice channels with non-game talk during a mission. This too was stated earlier in the TTP and apparently needs repeating.

Role Choice - Don't know how to do it? Don't pick it!

This should be simple. If you are unfamiliar with a given role, do not select it. There are plenty of people in our group who know how to use a wide variety of equipment, vehicles, and are familiar with the different roles available. If you want to learn about a given weapon or role, ask about it in the forum. Do not decide that a 25+ player session is a good time for you to learn how to fly a helicopter. You do NOT want to be the guy that crashed a Chinook full of human players and forced us to restart the mission. Likewise, you don't want to be the anti-tank guy who wasted his one critical rocket because he was unfamiliar with how to aim the weapon.

If you aren't proficient with the other roles, just pick a basic rifleman. Riflemen have a distinct place in Flashpoint, you really don't need some sexy high-speed low-drag uberweapon to have a good time or be effective.

Rules of Engagement - When to/when not to shoot

All players need to recognize that the ultimate shoot/don't shoot authority lies in their immediate superior. This is typically a Group or Squad Leader. The initial shots of a battle or ambush should occur only after the Group or Squad Leader gives the OK. The only exception to this is if the enemy has begun deliberately engaging your unit - at that point the situation is considered to be hot and all weapons can be brought to bear on the enemy without requiring prior authorization from the leadership element.

Another problem occurs when trigger-happy players begin firing on the enemy before the rest of the platoon has situated itself for the fight. This will often result in a high initial casualty rate as enemy counter-fire will catch unprepared friendly soldiers out in the open or otherwise in a vulnerable state.

Do not be the one to ruin an ambush or get your teammates killed by firing before you're supposed to. Remember, if the enemy doesn't see us, we still have time to improve our fields of fire/cover and concealment before we decide to engage them. The more we prepare for a firefight, the less we'll bleed during it.

Situational Awareness - Stay alert! Pay attention!

Nothing will get you (or your squad) killed quicker than poor situational awareness. It's every player's responsibility to stay situationally aware. Watch the front, flanks, and rear at all times, and pay attention to where enemy fire is coming from.

Due to the speed of sound being modelled in Flashpoint, you will hear the THUMP of a bullet impacting or the WHOOSH of it flying past before you'll hear the muzzle blast from the rifle. These sounds can be used to determine the source of fire after only a few shots - the more proficient the soldier, the less shots it will take before he's zeroed in on their source. Once the direction of enemy fire has been determined it should be relayed to all appropriate friendly elements.

Also remember to not get "tunnel vision" during a firefight. Stay alert, and scan the area for enemy forces that may be moving up on the flank or rear of your element. More than a few squads have been wiped out by enemy units slipping onto the flank unnoticed until it was too late.

Counter-Sniper - How to deal with an active sniper threat

There have been more than a few instances in past games where a group of players has been killed by a single sniper due to not being on top of the situation.

If a friendly soldier is shot beside you, the first thing you should be thinking about is "Where did that shot come from?". If you know, immediately move to put some sort of hard cover (preferably) or put some good concealment between you and the enemy sniper. If you don't know, make an educated guess and find cover or concealment, then assess the situation. Relay the position of enemy snipers or sharpshooters to other friendly forces to help to minimize casualties. Marking their position on the map is a good way to give friendly units an idea of where they should expect to find the shooter.

Remember that you are part of a team, and that that team can help extricate you from situations that you cannot get out of yourself. Do not try to out-snipe a sniper with a simple battle rifle - instead, get your teammates moving so that they can suppress and/or kill the sniper while you stay in cover or concealment.

Remember also that concealment can be artificially created via smoke grenades - if you have them, that is. Also remember that erratic movement will have a dramatic effect on the ability for a long-distance shooter to hit you. If you absolutely must move, make your movement as erratic as you can while still trying to get to a new, safer position as quickly as possible.

Vehicles - Support the infantry

All vehicles should be employed in a fashion which provides the greatest level of support to the on-the-ground infantry elements. No vehicles, be they armor or air, should be driving/flying around in a Rambo-like fashion trying to pad their kill count. Helo support should stay close to the infantry and provide direct on-call fire support. Armor elements should focus on protecting the infantry from vehicle threats and all manner of dismounted infantry.

When we play combined-arms missions, the key word there is COMBINED. All forces should be working together to acheive a common goal, there should be no Rambo'ing units on the battlefield.

Medics - Healers, NOT fighters

In the Wargames League mod in particular it is of the utmost importance that squad medics do not unneccessarily endanger themselves. When possible the medics should refrain from firing (it tends to draw counter-fire) and instead move up and down the line tending to the wounded. The loss of a medic in any WGL scenario is a massive blow to a squad's ability to take care of itself. If you cannot exercise the self-control necessary to be a medic, simply do not play as one.

When it comes to tending the wounded, all reasonable efforts should be made to tend to them in a position that offers cover from enemy fire, since both the wounded party and the medic will be vulnerable during the bandaging/healing process.

Radiomen - Wargames League RTO's

For Wargames League missions that have Group- or Unit-tracking enabled, it's critical that the radio is carried by one member in each group at all times. The radio's possession is what makes the group- and unit-markers update. Without it, the leadership element has a much more difficult time figuring out the disposition of friendly forces. Units that do not carry their radio are at an increased risk of fratricide via air- or artillery-support.

David Adam's Goon Rule Additions

The following is quoting from Goon David Adam. It's good advice, and if the shoe fits, wear it.

The average SA forum member has the attention span of a fruit fly. They cannot stit still for more than 20 seconds without something happening or they get all antsy and start doing stupid shit. Here are some guidelines to help everyone have a good time:

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Lessons Learned as of July 2006

Even more things to keep in mind

This is a continuation of the lessons we've been learning in Flashpoint. This is a WIP throughout the month and will be added to as the month progresses.

Leaders - Tasking people by name

If you're acting as a squad leader, platoon commander, or even fireteam leader, remember that to effectively get things done you must frequently direct your group members by name to do things. Asking for "someone" to do a specific task is unreliable, whereas saying "So-and-so, do blah blah" will get it done more often than not.

Radio - Contact reports

When reporting enemy contacts, make sure to do it in a logical fashion. If your team is actively moving towards a known waypoint, you can use front/left/right/rear as direction indicators. If in a stationary position or in a prolonged firefight, using compass directions tends to work better. Noone should use "clock" bearings. Make sure you include as much relevant information as possible while being as brief as possible. For instance, you might say something like "Contact front, enemy infantry, two hundred meters!".  If enemy contacts are near a landmark of some sort, you can throw that into your report as well. For instance: "Contact left, enemy in the treeline, three hundred meters!". The idea is to pass the most amount of information in the fewest words possible so that people can rapidly react to the info.

Radio - Immediate Radio Silence

The best method to get everyone to temporarily cease talking on TS is to say "Break, break, break!" into the channel. Upon hearing that, everyone quiets down so that the speaker can more clearly hear something in the distance, or so that he can say something important that needs to be heard by everything, or whatever. The speaker should indicate when the radio silence is over verbally so that everyone else can resume whatever they were saying prior to the break.

Grenades - How to know when to say "Frag Out!" versus "Grenade!"

The usage of the words "Grenade" and the phrase "Frag out" depend on which way the grenade is going. If you spot an enemy grenade flying towards friendly forces, say "Grenade!". If you're throwing a grenade at the enemy, say "Frag out!". Do not mix the two. Grenade is incoming, "frag out!" is outgoing.

Death - Dead men tell no tales

Now that we're actually seriously abiding by the "Dead men tell no tales" rule, we've found that doing so adds a ton to the immersion and overall experience. So, as a reminder, if you're dead, go back into the main TS channel if you must chat with someone. If you want to stay in the squad channel to listen to the surviving teammates, feel free, but DO NOT talk.

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Gunnery - Weapon/Sight Info

How to use certain weapons & sighting systems

RPG-7 (Russian)

The RPG-7's sight has a rangefinding capability built into the reticule. The scale in the lower-right is for finding the range to the target (with 2.7m being the average height of a tank). Place the treads on the bottom line and whereever the top of the turret touches is the range (in meters). This target is about 300 meters away.

The thick double line on the reticle is the mark for 300 meters. Place the crosshairs on the turret of the tank and you're ready to fire. Don't worry about the lateral range markings, as those are to adjust for crosswinds which don't have an effect on RPGs in OFP like they do in reality. Maybe in Armed Assault or OFP2..

RPG-7 Warheads

From left to right we have the PG-7VL HEAT, the TBG-7 Thermobaric, and the PG-7VR Tandem Warhead.

The TBG-7 can be used on large groups of infantry and light vehicles like APCs and IFVs. If you use it against a tank, it probably won't destroy it, but it will damage it enough to force the crew to bail.

The PG-7VL HEAT is an all-purpose round.

The PG-7VR Tandem Warhead round should be saved for tanks-only - it'll knock out most anything in a single hit.

SVD Dragunov (Russian)

The SVD Dragunov sniper rifle has a range-finding reticule and calibrated bullet-drop chevrons. The range-finder appears to be slightly off (that, or I'm reading it wrong), but it's still useful despite that.

Click on the screenshot below for an example of what I mean. On the left half, the middle soldier (under the 4 on the range finder) is 512 meters away, yet he shows up as being around 430 or so meters based on the reticule. The closest soldier appears to be well under 150 meters away, yet in actuality he was 250. The guy on the far left is 750 meters away, yet appears to be much less than that. Basically, the range finder is workable but not terribly precise if you're using the top of their head as their height.

The workaround is to call off their range based on their size from the bottom of their boots to their shoulders. Using that method, you can see that the ranges are much more precise when the head is discounted from the measurement.

The bullet-drop chevrons are calibrated so that the first one is zeroed at 250m, then the second one at 500, third at 750, and the last is good for 1000m (though the rifle really isn't made for that.. let alone 750m).

The right half of the illustration depicts the sight picture you would want when making a 500 meter shot on a soldier. Always aim center-of-mass for the best chance of scoring a killing shot.

81mm Mortar (FDF)

The player-manned 81mm crew-served mortar available in FDF is actually extremely easy to target and use. The complexity comes in when you add spotting and prediction into the mix, but the mechanics of aiming and adjusting fire are really rather simple in comparison.

To aim the mortar, go into sighted mode and align the vertical range list such that the range of your target is on the horizon. For practice purposes, this works best with a clear, level area with direct line-of-sight to your target. The process of aiming involves getting a level horizon reference and dialing in the proper range, then aligning the vertical aiming reference with your target. The "getting a level horizon reference" gets a bit more complicated in hilly or rugged areas due to the absence of aiming stakes, but the theory is rather simple and thus can be practiced in different types of terrain until you're getting good, consistant results. Adding a human spotter would probably make indirect, non-LOS fire a distinct and relatively easily achieved possibility.

The picture above shows a 250 meter shot on a Ural truck. Note that the 250 meter horizontal range line is even with the horizon. Note also that the time-of-flight for the 81mm mortar shells is approximately 18 seconds when your target is at the same altitude as you.


The 112 RsKes APILAS is a heavy anti-tank single-shot rocket launcher. The APILAS can knock out most tanks with a single hit. The weapon comes with a reticule that tends to confuse new players, but it's a rather simple thing once you know how to work it.

First things first - ignore the tilted second reticule in the upper-right of the scope, that's used for some other firing configuration or firing position that doesn't come into play in OFP.

Moving right along, the APILAS reticule does not seem to match the rocket's ballistics precisely. The horizontal lines marked as 4, 5, and 6 (presumably hundreds of meters) are off. As you can see in the compilation screen, the point-of-aim for a 500 meter shot is the treads of your target resting on the 4 line, not 5 as you would expect. Aside from this, it's a simple sight to use. POA for a 200 meter shot is with the target's treads resting upon the main horizontal line. POA for a 300 meter shot is only a little bit higher, with the base of the target resting on the small hashmark just below the main horizontal line.

The APILAS sight also has markings along the main horizontal line to compensate for target movement - use them as a rough gauge, and if you need to make a shot on a moving target, don't expect to hit them with any reliable consistancy at any range over 200 meters unless you've been practicing those kinds of shots in advance.

Javelin Anti-tank Missile (USMC)

The Javelin is a soft-launch, high-attack-profile anti-tank missile that's capable of wrecking things in a major way. Who exactly it's wrecking, friend or foe, depends on whether you know how to use it.

To acquire a target for the Javelin, hit your sight key ('v' is the default) to bring up the targeting system. You can zoom in and out on this screen. Right-click on a target to designate it.

Due to the soft-launch capability of the Javelin, you must elevate the weapon system before firing. To do so, get out of the sighted mode and center your target in the red reticule visible on the weapon's control unit (as pictured). If your target is locked and you see it centered in this reticule, fire... the missile will launch, the motor will kick in, and it'll fly a high profile before nosing down to slam into the vulnerable top of whatever you aimed it at.

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Wargames League Gunnery & More

WGL stuff

Updated this slightly for WGL 5.1

Due to WGL being so dramatically different from most other OFP mods we play, I've decided to add some info about it to this page. Expect to see gunnery guides for some weapons, a mortar writeup, and some more info about the mod that should help people get up to speed with it.

  • WGL's map grids are different from default OFP. Instead of being 128 meters on a side for small grids and 1.28 kilometers for big grids, it's now a more proper 100 meters on a side/1 kilometer on a side.

  • Ranges

    WGL changes the default field of view, the scoped field of view, and ironsight field of view, as well as taking away the non-ironsight zoom capability. Because of this, objects typically appear smaller than they would in normal Flashpoint. For reference, here are KD (known-distance) shots of soldiers at various distances seen via different means. The soldiers are spaced 100 meters apart, starting 100 meters from the viewpoint.

    M-249 ironsights.


    ACOG, furthest enemy is 600 meters away.

    ACOG, furthest enemy is 1000 meters away.

    M24 scope, furthest enemy is 600 meters away.


    WGL is a bit harsh with the ironsight zoom - with an M-16A2 in reality, an average person will be as wide as the front sight tip at a range of 300 meters. In WGL, as you can see in this screenshot, it's more like 100 meters. Precise shooting of an ironsighted weapon in WGL is best done at ranges well under 300 meters. Massed fire or machinegun fire should be used extensively at longer ranges, along with fire & movement techniques.

    Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight (ACOG)

    While the BDC in this ACOG isn't perfectly accurate, it does server nicely as a basic reference. The ACOG's magnification makes it easy to get good hits on standing targets at 300 meters, while prone ones are more easily engaged at 200 meters or less. The maximum effective range for precise fire is probably somewhere around 400-500 meters against standing targets. Due to the increased sight waver in WGL, shooting at more distant targets is much more difficult than default OFP.

    The following graphic shows the point-of-aim to get a hit at ranges from 100 to 400 meters. These are not 100% precise, but it should give you a good idea of what kind of sight picture is required. Each aiming example shown here resulted in a torso hit.

    ACOG points-of-aim for 100-400 meter shots.

    Mortar Gunnery

    It's easier than you think.

      Phase One - Setting up the mortar
    1. Deploy the base, or have an AI teammate deploy it via the action menu (6, then "Deploy base").
    2. Mount the tube to the base, or have an AI teammate do so via the action menu (6, then "Mount tube to base").
    3. Mortar ammo will be on the ground at this point. Pick it up.
    4. To load the mortar, select "Reload HE" from your action menu, THEN choose "Load HE". (or WP when appropriate)

      Phase Two - Sighting
    1. Open the mortar dialog via the "Fire Control" option in the action menu.
    2. Click the "G" button to start your gun plot. Once you've clicked it, it will tell you to mark your mortar's position on the map. Open the map and click where your mortar is. You must strive to be as precise as possible at this point, as any deviation will result in your initial accuracy being degraded.
    3. Click on the "T" to plot a target. You'll have to click on the map afterwards to designate the target position. The azimuth and range numbers that show up at this point are meaningless.
    4. The G-T number is the Gun-Target azimuth. Input it into the "Azimuth" box after clearing the number already there.
    5. Range shows the range from the gun to the target. The closest two ranges, in 100 meter increments, will show up in the ballistic table to the right. You can either calculate out the precise elevation or guesstimate it. The "Elevation" needs to be input into the "Elevation" box beside the Azimuth one. Add or subtract elevation as necessary for the range that's listed. The more precise you are, the more accurate your initial rounds will be.

      Note that the number to the right of the GT/RANGE part on the left side of the dialog is the elevation differential. The math to account for this is very simple: If the elevation is a negative numbers (target is below the mortar), subtract the number of vertical meters of difference from the horizontal distance. If it's a positive number, add the number. Simple enough. The bigger the difference is, the more important it is to input it.

      TOF is the time-of-flight of the rounds.

      IMPORTANT! Any time you change the azimuth or range settings, you MUST click the "Target" button to realign the mortar.

      When everything is properly input and the mortar is aligned to the target and loaded, click "Fire". A round will fire, and 20-30 or so seconds later it'll impact.

    M136 AT-4

    The AT-4 in WGL is zeroed for 300 meters, so if you use the standard OFP sight picture when firing one at a vehicle 100 meters away you're likely to shoot right over it. Use the depicted sight pictures for good hits at ranges from 100-300 meters.

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    Shack Tactical Training Grounds

    What to expect in the training area

    Facilities Overview

    The Shack Tactical Training Grounds mission was created by kevb0 with the assistance of myself and Syixxs (ideas, brainstorming, bugtesting). The Shack Tactical Training Grounds are meant to give players of all skill levels a chance to become proficient with a variety of weapons and vehicles, while also providing the option for higher-level skills such as convoy operations, MOUT combat, patrols, heliborne operations, and armor/infantry coordination to be practiced in a live-fire but non-hostile environment.

    Instructors will be used to teach the more advanced courses (such as convoy training, MOUT, artillery, spotting, etc) in special training sessions, while players can at any other time load up this mission on the ShackTac server to train as individuals or in groups in the various facilities scattered throughout the area.

    Any trainee who is seriously injured or is designated as a casualty during the course of training will find themself back at Range Control after a short delay.

    I've created a large composite map of the training grounds for familiarization and instructor planning purposes. Note also that the "impact areas" of each range are shaded in red. These are to be avoided when live-fire training is being conducted.

    "Range One" - Known- and Unknown-Distances

    "Range One" is the area in which most of the known- and unknown-distances small arms ranges are located. It is comprised of the pistol, rifle, light machinegun, sniper, and heavy machinegun KD ranges, as well as several UD ranges including one for snipers/spotters.

    Pistol range
    The pistol range is for basic proficiency with the M9 pistol. The targets at the range are placed 7m, 15m, 25m, and 50m from the firing line.
    Rifle range
    The rifle range is for basic proficiency with the M-16A2 rifle. The targets are ranged from 25m to 200m, and can be reset by going to the range tower and selecting "Raise/Lower Targets". Each target takes three hits to knock down.
    Light Machinegun range
    The light machinegun range is for basic proficiency with the M-249 Squad Automatic Weapon. The targets are ranged from 50m to 300m, and can be reset by going to the tower and selecting "Raise/Lower Targets".
    Crew-served Machinegun and Sniper Range
    The crew-served machinegun and sniper range is for basic proficiency with the Browning M2 .50 Caliber HMG, M82 .50 Special Applications Scoped Rifle, and the M40 sniper rifle. The targets are ranged from 75m to 500m. The Targets can be reset by going to the tower and hitting "Raise/Lower Targets"
    Unknown Distance Rifle Ranges
    The Short and Medium-range "UD" ranges are for weapon familiarization against targets appearing randomly at distances from 20 to 300 meters. Instructors are able to control the pop-up/drop-down behavior of the targets from the range towers.

    The Medium/Long-range "UD" range is for weapon familiarization against targets appearing randomly at distances from 300 to 1100 meters. Instructors are able to control the pop-up/drop-down behavior of the targets from the range tower.
    Sniper Unknown Distance Range
    The sniper "UD" range is meant to teach sniper/spotter teams how to work together to scan, identify, target, and engage silhouette targets at unknown distances. A good eye and solid sniper team communication is just as critical as solid shooting skills at this range. Targets can be individually raised by the instructor manning the range tower.

    Anti-Tank Ranges - KD and UD

    The anti-tank ranges serve to teach trainees the fundamentals of employing a variety of AT weapon systems against dummy targets. The LAW, AT-4, Carl Gustav, and TOW missile system can be tested at these ranges. The KD range has targets at known intervals (100m seperations, with two targets per distance to show frontal and flank shots), while the UD range requires trainees to guage the proper distance and use the correct hold-over to get a hit.

    Combat Assault Courses

    There are two primary assault courses available for training. Both should be run through with an instructor present so that feedback can be given on the techniques applied during them. Both courses have staging areas where participants can acquire weapons and receive a briefing prior to moving into the assault.

    Desert MOUT Facility
    The Desert MOUT Facility is an area where urban and close-quarters tactics can be taught to trainees in a live-fire but non-hostile environment. Silhouette targets are placed randomly through the area and the trainees must move through and engage the targets while practicing proper urban movement and fighting techniques.
    Forest Assault Course
    The Forest Assault Course is a live-fire but non-hostile environment that is used to teach trainees the basic elements of combat in wooded environments.

    Artillery Range - Spotting, Controlling, and Commanding

    The artillery range is meant to teach trainees the process by which they can control, command, and spot for artillery assets. Both player-controlled and player-commanded assets are available, from 60- and 81mm mortars (player-controlled) to the Chain of Command Unified Artillery's 105mm and 155mm howitzers (player-commanded). Trainees should be familiar with the mortar gunnery process listed in the Tactics, Training, and Procedures page (see: mortars) before attempting to use the 60- and 81mm mortar systems.

    Laser designators are also available for use with the Apache gunships and their Hellfire missiles.

    Convoy Staging Area

    The Convoy Staging area is where trainees form up to be trained on convoy operations by a set of instructors. Convoy training should only be done under the supervision of instructors who can provide the valuable feedback on what is being done properly/improperly over the course of it. Convoy trainees should expect to trained in subjects such as: Proper interval, action on contact, fighting through a kill zone, locating and/or reacting to IED's/mines, action on a disabled vehicle, and so on and so forth.

    The FARP - Helos

    The Forward Arming and Refueling Point, FARP, is where you will find the attack helicopters staged. Cobras, Apaches, and Kiowas are available for trainees who want to practice their attack helo skills. Pilot/gunner, air-to-ground, and air-to-air coordination can be taught with the vehicles available at the FARP. Apache pilots can also practice how to use their Hellfire missiles against player-designated targets, be they 'lased' via infantry-carried laser designators of the Kiowa's laser designator. Stand-off Apache attack techniques can be developed and perfected in safety throughout the training area.

    Tank Assault Course

    The tank assault course is where trainees can practice coordinated tank operation with a driver/gunner/commander working in tandem. The course runs through a wooded environment and has a variety of armored and infantry targets scattered throughout it. Tank/infantry coordination can also be worked on in it.

    Air Assault Operations

    The air assault possibilities are limited only by instructor imagination. While there are dedicated facilities to teach proper helo exiting techniques (for instance, LZ Alpha), the possibility exists to do all manner of air-assault-related training all over the island. The Desert MOUT Facility, for instance, has enough ground near it that a squad could be airlifted to it, then assault the course on foot.

    The specific skill sets and team behaviors that the air assault training is meant to address are as follows:

    Other Training Possibilities

    The capability exists for all manner of squad-related movement, coordination, and combat tactics to be practiced in the training environment. Force-on-force training is also available, led by instructors.

    Squads can practice patrolling, setting up ambushes, contact drills/battle drills, security on halts and during movement, and movement techniques like bounding overwatch, amongst other things. Instructor supervision and command allows for some very educational force-on-force scenarios to be set up between trainee squads,y too.


    Future training possibilities are up for discussion at this time. If any member of ShackTac would like to see a specific topic covered in future training sessions (with facilities created specifically for it if necessary), they need only bring it up on the forum and give the instructors an idea of what they'd like to see.

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    Credit where credit is due

    Thanks to David Adam for the RPG-7 and Javelin info/base images, as well as the ammo bearer idea.

    Thanks also go out to the ShackTac guys and the Goons who provided valuable feedback on this.

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    Revision History

    Better late than never

    As of June 12th revisions are being kept track of for this page.

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    Dedicated to those who have died so that we may live.

    Bohemia Interactive Studios, OFP credits

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